Dr. Karl Jan Reinhard
- Origins of Diabetes: Since 1981, I have collected dietary data from Southwestern sites. This resulted in the reconstruction of diet for a 10,000-year period in the western states. In 2003, after the publication of nutritional data for wild plant foods, I realized that my data provide an excellent explanation of how diabetes evolved in western tribes. This work is in write-up stage for publication. I am preparing a NIH proposal to fund more of this work.
- Omaha Tribe Obesity/Diabetes: I am looking for an explanation of the development of modern American Indian disease, primarily diabetes, through a new approach - Pathoecology - that I am developing with the Omaha Tribe of Nebraska. Funded by a grant from the NEH in 1994, this program resulted in the reconstruction of diet and activity patterns for the Omaha Tribe of Nebraska. My students then compared traditional dietary practices of the Omaha with modern practices. To achieve this it has been necessary to develop methods for analysis of archaeological material, primarily skeletons to collect activity pattern and disease history data for the Tribe. As a member of the Omaha Tribe Historical Project and Tribal Council-designated researcher, my goal is the comparison of past lifestyle with modern lifestyle to understand why Type II Diabetes has reached a 70% prevalence among Omaha Indian adults.
- Archaeoparasitology: This has been the central theme in my career. I began tracing the prehistory of parasitism in 1981 as my M.S. and Ph.D. research. At the same time, I initiated studies into the state of parasitism in historic populations. The results at the end of the first decade of my research defined the role of diet, agriculture and urbanization on the emergence of parasitic disease. Also, my work offered significant developments in the methods of recovering parasite remains from archaeological sediments, coprolites, and mummies. In 1990, I changed the regional focus of my work from the Southwest USA to the Andean region of South America. This work resulted in the mapping of the distribution of various parasite species through time and space for the Americas. It also defined the effects of empire expansion, especially of the Incas, on parasitic disease. I have just submitted a proposal to NSF for continued research.
Ph.D. (1988) Texas A&M University, Department of Anthropology, Dissertation Diet, Parasitism, and Anemia in the Prehistoric Southwest.
M.S. (1985) Northern Arizona University, Department of Biology, Ecology emphasis, Thesis Recovery of Helminths from Prehistoric Feces: the Cultural Ecology of Ancient Parasitism.
B.A. (1977) Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona
I have taught 16 different lecture, lab, and field courses in my academic career. My teaching evaluations were consistent excellent to superior. I also taught six different laboratory courses as a graduate student. In 2000, I began working with high school teachers in developing science curricula funded initially through an NSF grant to the Nebraska Earth Sciences Educational Network. I continue preparing science laboratory curricula in Forensic Science, Botany, Zoology, and Archaeology as well as lecturing to high school and elementary school classes. I am currently developing curricula for the Omaha Nation Public Schools.
International Teaching in Spanish and Portuguese
Between 1974 and 1986 I participated in numerous excavations in the Sonoran Desert, the Colorado Plateau, the Chihuahuan Desert, the Arctic, and the Plains. These excavations included pithouse villages, pueblos, cemeteries, historic homesteads, open camp sites, cave sites, and winter houses. I have done more limited excavation in the Sertão of Brazil and the Atacama Desert of Peru.
Research/Service Grants and Academic Awards
Recent Research Grant Proposals Submitted or in Prepraration
In preparation, NIH, Pathoecology of Native American Type 2 Diabetes in the Southwest
2004, Fulbright Teaching/Research Award for 2006-2007 Academic year, Brazil
2004, Fulbright AIA, to develop Archaeobotany Course at University of São Paulo
2004, Fulbright Senior Specialist Program, Botanical Archaeology
2004, CNPq/Fulbright, to develop Archaeobotany Course at University of São Paulo
2003, NSF, Impact of Parasitism on Anasazi Maternal/Infant Health (revision requested)
2002, NSF, Role of Diet and Parasitism as Causal Factors for Anasazi Porotic Hyperostosis
2002, NSF, Evaluating Chinchorro Diet: Role of Plants and Diatoms
2003, NSF, Effects of Parasitism on Anasazi Maternal and Infant Health
Research/Service Grants and Academic Awards
*indicates Reinhard corresponding author
*Araújo, A., Jansen, A. M., de Souza, S. M., Fererreira, L. F., Reinhard, K. J., Whiting, M. K., & Dittmar de la Cruz, K. (2005) An interesting case of Chagas’ disease in central Brazil. Lancet (in review).Fisher CL, Reinhard KJ, Kirk M, DiVirgilio J, Miller TS (n.d.) Archaeoparasitology of Historic Albany, New York. Journal of Historic Archaeology (in revision).
*Reinhard KJ, Danielson DR (n.d.) Pervasiveness of Phytoliths in Prehistoric Southwestern Diet and Implications for Regional and Temporal Trends for Dental Microwear. Journal of Archaeological Science (in revision).
*Reinhard KJ, Szuter C, Ambler JR (n.d.) Hunter-gatherer Use of Small Animal Food Resources. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology(revision submitted).
*Baier M, Reinhard KJ (n.d.) Agave Dietary Reliance and Dental Wear in Prehistoric Mexico. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (revision submitted).
*Reinhard KJ, Iñiguez AM, Martinson E (n.d.) Maize, Meat, Parasites, and the Pathoecology of Porotic Hyperostosis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (in revision).
*Reinhard KJ, Edwards SK, Meier DK (2005) Pollen concentration analysis of Salmon Ruin and Antelope House: Documenting Anasazi Dietary Variation. Journal of Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, and Palaeoecology (in press).
*Sérgio AM Chaves, Karl J Reinhard (2005) Critical Analysis of Prehistoric Evidence of Medicinal Plant Use, Piauí, Brazil. Journal of Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, and Palaeoecology (in press).
*Sianto L, Reinhard KJ, Gonçalves MLC, Araújo A (2005) The Finding of Echinostoma (Trematoda: Digenea) and Hookworm Eggs in Coprolites Collected from a Brazilian Mummified Body Dated of 600-1,200 Years Before Present. Journal of Parasitology (in press).
Gonçalves MLC, da Silva VL, de Andrade CM, Reinhard K, da Rocha GC , Le Bailly M, Bouchet F, Ferreira LF, and Araújo A (2004) Amebiasis distribution in the past: first steps using an immunoassay technique. The Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 98:88-91.
Iñiguez AM, Araújo A, Vicente ACP, Ferreira LF, Reinhard KJ (2003.)Enterobius vermicularis: Specific Detection by Amplification of an Internal Region of 5S Ribosomal RNA Intergenic Spacer and Trans-splicing Leader RNA Analysis. Experimental Parasitology 102:118-122.
Santos SM, Rick FM, Gonçalves MLC, Ferreira LF, Reinhard K, Nascimento F, Araújo A (2003) Louse Infection in Shrunken Heads. Paleopathology Newsletter 121:6 – 9.
Araújo A, Jansen AM, Bouchet F, Reinhard K, Ferreira LF (2003) Parasitism, the diversity of life, and paleoparasitology. Memorias do Instituto do Oswaldo Cruz 98: 5-11.
Bouchet F, Guidon N, Dittmar K, Harter S, Ferreira LF, Miranda SC, Reinhard K,
Araújo A (2003) Parasite Remains in Archaeological Sites. Memorias do Instituto do Oswaldo Cruz 98: 47-52.
Dittmar K, Mamat U, Whiting M, Goldmann T, Reinhard K, Guillen S (2003) Techniques of DNA-studies on prehispanic ectoparasites (Pulex sp., Pulicidae, Siphonaptera) from animal mummies of the Chiribaya Culture, Southern Peru. Memorias do Instituto do Oswaldo Cruz 98:53-58.
Iñiguez AM, Reinhard KJ, Araújo A, Ferreira LF, Vicente ACP (2003) Enterobius vermicularis ancient DNA from North and South American human coprolites Memorias do Instituto do Oswaldo Cruz 98:67-69.
*Martinson E, Reinhard KJ, Buikstra JE, Dittmar K (2003) Pathoecology of chiribaya Parasitism. Memorias do Instituto do Oswaldo Cruz 98: 195-205.
*Reinhard K, Buikstra J (2003) Louse infestation of the Chiribaya Culture, Southern Peru: variation in prevalence by age and sex. Memorias do Instituto do Oswaldo Cruz 98:173-179.
*Reinhard K, Fink TM, Skiles J (2003) A case of megacolon in Rio Grande Valley as a possible case of Chagas disease. Memorias do Instituto do Oswaldo Cruz 98: 165-172.
*Reinhard K, Urban O (2003) Diagnosing ancient diphyllobothriasis from Chinchorro mummies. Memorias do Instituto do Oswaldo Cruz 98: 191-193.
*Santoro C, Vinton SD, Reinhard K (2003) Inca expansion and parasitism in the Lluta Valley: preliminary data. Memorias do Instituto do Oswaldo Cruz 98: 161-163.
*Chaves SM, Reinhard KJ (2003) Paleopharmacology and Pollen: Theory, Method, and Application. Memorias do Instituto do Oswaldo Cruz 98: 207-211.
Gonçalves MLC, Araújo A, Duarte R, Pereira da Silva J, Reinhard K, Bouchet F, Ferreira LF. (2002) Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in coprolites using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. The Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 96:640-643.
Rick F, Rocha GC, Dittmar K, Coimbra Jr. CEA, Reinhard K, Bouchet F, Ferreira LF, and Araújo A (2002) Crab louse infestation in pre-Columbian America. Journal of Parasitology 88:1266-1267.
*Reinhard KJ, Araújo A, Ferreira LF, Coimbra C (2001) American hookworm antiquity. Medical Anthropology 20:96-101.
*Araújo A, Ferreira LF, Guidon N, Maues da Serra Freire N, Reinhard KJ, Dittmar K (2000) Ten Thousand Years of Head Lice Infection. Parasitology Today 16:269.
Ferreira LF, Britto C, Cardoso A, Fernandes O, Reinhard K, Araújo A (2000) Paleoparasitology of Chagas disease revealed by infected tissues of Chilean mummies. Acta Tropica 75:79-84.
Marlar R, Billman B, Banks L, Lambert P, Reinhard K (2000) Fecal Evidence of Cannibalism. Southwestern Lore 4:14-22.
Lambert P, Billman B, Banks L, Reinhard K (2000) Response to Critique of the Claim of Cannibalism at Cowboy Wash. American Antiquity 65:397-406.
*Araújo A, Ferreira LF, Reinhard K (2000) The role of mummy studies in paleoparasitology. Chungará 32:111-115.
Reinhard KJ, Rothschild B, Rothschild C (2000) Recognition of Treponematoses in Post-repatriation X-ray and CD-COM Nebraska Record. Chungará 32:175-178.
Duarte AN, Verde M, Ubilla M, Araujo A, Martins PC, Reinhard K, Ferreira LF (1999) Note on parasite eggs in mineralized carnivora coprolites from the upper pleistocene sopas formation, Uruguay. Paleopathology Newsletter 107: 6-8.
Hugot JP, Reinhard KJ, Gardner SL, Morand S (1999) Human enterobiasis in evolution: origin, specificity and transmission. Parasite 6:201-208, Okoye M, Kimmerle E, Reinhard KJ (1999) An analysis and report of custodial deaths in Nebraska, USA. Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine 6:77-84
Myers J, Okoye I, Kimmerle E, Reinhard KJ (1999) Three dimensional (3-D) imaging in post-mortem examinations: elucidation and identification of cranial and facial fractures in victims of homicide utilizing 3-D computerized imaging reconstruction techniques. International Journal of Legal Medicine 113:33
*Danielson DR, Reinhard KJ, (1998) Human dental microwear caused by calcium oxalate phytoliths in prehistoric diet of the lower Pecos region, Texas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 107:297-304.
Araújo A, Reinhard K, Bastos OM, Costa LC, Pirmez C, Iniguez AM, Vicente AC, Morel CM, Ferreira LF (1998) Paleoparasitology: Perspectives with new techniques. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Sáo Paulo 40:371-376.
Reinhard KJ, Araújo A, Cammillo-Coura F, Ferreira LF (1997) Paleoparsasitology of oxyuriasis. Revista Anais da Academia Nacional de Medicina 157:20-24.
Bayman, J, Hevly RH, Reinhard KJ (1996) Analytical perspectives on a protohistoric cache of ceramic jars from the Lower Colorado Desert. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 18:131-154.
Sutton MQ, Reinhard KJ (1995) Cluster analysis of the coprolites from Antelope House: Implications for Anasazi Diet and Cuisine. Journal of Archeological Science 22: 741-750.
*Ghazi AM, Reinhard KJ, Holmes MA, Durrance E (1994) Brief communication: Further
evidence of lead contamination of Omaha skeletons. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 95:427-434.
*Reinhard KJ, Fink TM (1994) Cremation in southwestern North America: aspects of taphonomy that affect pathological analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science 5:597-605.
*Reinhard KJ (1994) Sanitation and parasitism at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Journal of Historic Archaeology 28:62-67.
Bewtra C, Aufderheide AC, Salo W, Reinhard KJ (1994) Presence of Acid-fast Organisms and Archeological Tissues. Journal of Paleopathology 6:15-17.
*Reinhard KJ (1993) The utility of pollen concentration in coprolite analysis: expanding upon Dean's comments. Journal of Ethnobiology 9:31-44.
*Reinhard KJ, Geib PR, Callahan MM, Hevly RH (1992) Discovery of colon contents in a skeletonized burial: soil sampling for dietary remains. Journal of Archaeological Science 19:697-705.
*Reinhard KJ, Bryant Jr. VM (1992) Coprolite analysis: a biological perspective on archaeology. In (M. B. Schiffer Ed.) Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 4. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, pp. 245-288.
*Reinhard KJ (1992) Parasitology as an interpretive tool in archaeology. American Antiquity 57:231-245.
*Warnock P, Reinhard KJ (1992) Methods of extracting pollen and parasite eggs from latrine soils. Journal of Archaeological Science 19:261-264.
*Reinhard KJ, Sandness KL (1992) Vertebral pathology in prehistoric and historic skeletons from northeastern Nebraska. Plains Anthropologist 141:299-309.
*Reinhard KJ, Ghazi AM (1992) Evaluation of lead concentrations in 18th-Century Omaha Indian skeletons using ICP-MS. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 89:183-195.
*Reinhard KJ, Hamilton DL, Hevly RH (1991) Use of pollen concentration in paleopharmacology: coprolite evidence of medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnobiology 11:117-134.
*Reinhard KJ, Hevly RH (1991) Dietary and parasitological analysis of mummy 5, Ventana Cave, Arizona. Kiva (Journal of the Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society) 56:314-325.
*Reinhard KJ (1991) Recent contributions to New World archaeoparasitology. Parasitology Today 7:81-82.
Cahill Jane, Reinhard K, Tarler D, Warnock P (1991) Scientists Examine Remains of Ancient Bathroom. Biblical Archaeology Review 17(3): 64-69.
*Reinhard KJ (1990) Archaeoparasitology in North America. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 82:145-162.
Publication Activities - Not Peer-Reviewed
* indicates Reinhard corresponding author
§ indicates an invited chapter
*§ Reinhard JK, LeRoy-Toren S, Danielson DR (2005) Salmon Ruin Coprolites: In (L Baker, P Reed eds) San Juan Diet. Salmon Ruin Technical Report. Tucson: Desert Archaeology Institute.
*§ Reinhard KJ (2005) Burials, Dietary and Parasitoogical Sampling Methods. In (D Pearsall ed) Encyclopedia of Archaeology. Elsevier Press: New York.
*§ Reinhard KJ (2005) Archaeology as a Discipline: Archaeoparasitology. In (D Pearsall ed) Encyclopedia of Archaeology. Elsevier Press: New York.
Gonçalves MLC, Araújo A, Ferreira LF, Bouchet F, Reinhard K (2002) Paleoparasitologia: novas perspectivas. Fumdhamentos Publicação da Fundação Museu do Homem Americano 1:54 - 64.
Rick FM, Ferreira LF, Araújo A, Reinhard KJ (2002) A Saga do Piolhos na America do Sul. Ciéncia Hoje 31:34-40.
*§ Reinhard K, Danielson M, Daniels DR, Miranda Chaves S (2002) Chapter 7: Multidisciplinary Coprolite Analysis. In (PR Geib and DR Keller eds) Bighorn Cave: Test Excavation of a Stratified Dry Shelter, Mojave County, Arizona. Bilby Research Center Occasional Papers 1: Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff. pp.135-152.
Gonçalves MLC, Araújo AJG, Ferreira LF, Reinhard K (2001) Paleoparasitologia: Pesquisas Recentes com Novas Técnicas In: Arqueologia do Brasil Meridional. SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Pontifcia Universidade Catolica, Porto Alegre: Rio Grande do Sul. p. 1-9.
*§ Kiple D, Meier D, Okoye M, Reinhard K (2001) Three Dimensional (3-D) Reconstruction Applied to Mummy Conservation and Display. In (E. Williams, ed.) Human Remains: Conservation, Retrieval, and Analysis. British Archaeology Research Council: London. pp. 167-172.
*§ Reinhard KJ, Souza SMF, Rodrigues CD, Kimmerle E, Dorsey-Vinton S (2001) Microfossils in Dental Calculus: A New Perspective on Diet and Dental Disease. In (E. Williams, ed.) Human Remains: Conservation, Retrieval, and Analysis. British Archaeology Research Council: London. pp. 113-118
*§ Reinhard KJ (2000) Archaeoparasitology. In (L. Ellis, ed.) Archaeological Method and Theory: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing Co. pp. 52-60.
*§ Reinhard KJ (2000) Reburial, international perspectives. In (L. Ellis, ed.) Archaeological
Method and Theory: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing Co. pp. 512-518.
*§ Reinhard KJ (2000) Coprolite Analysis. In (L. Ellis, ed.) Archaeological Method and
Theory: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing Co. pp. 125-132.
*§ Reinhard KJ (2000) Paleonutrition. In (L. Ellis, ed.) Archaeological Method and Theory: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing Co. pp. 435-439.
*§ Reinhard KJ (2000) Paleopharmacology. In (L. Ellis, ed.) Archaeological Method and Theory: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing Co. pp. 443-438.
*§ Reinhard KJ (2000) Parasitic disease at Five Points: Parasitological Analysis of Sediments from the Courthouse Block. In (R. Yamin, ed.) Tales of Five Points: Working Class Life in Nineteenth-Century New York, Volume II, An Interpretive Approach to Understanding Working Class Life. West Chester: John Milner Associates. pp.391-404
Araújo A, Ferreira LF, Reinhard K (1999) Dos caçadores de microbios a paleoparasitologia molecular. Ciéncia Hoje 26 (152):32-38.
*§ El-Najjar MY, Mulinski TMJ, Reinhard KJ (1998) Mummies and mummification practices in the southern and southwestern United States. In (E. Cockburn and T. Reyman eds.) Mummies, Disease, and Ancient Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 121-137.
*§ Reinhard KJ (1998) Mummy studies and archaeoparasitology. In (E. Cockburn and T. Reyman eds.) Mummies, Disease, and Ancient Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 377-380.
*§ Reinhard KJ, (1998) Mummy studies and paleonutrition. In (E. Cockburn and T. Reyman eds.) Mummies, Disease, and Ancient Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 372-377.
§ Tieszen L, Reinhard KJ, Forshoe DL (1997) Application of stable isotopes in analysis of dietary patterns. In (D.W. Owsley and J.C. Rose eds.) Bioarchaeology of the North Central United States. Fayetteville: Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series, No. 49. pp.246-256.
* Reinhard KJ (1997) Ceramics. In (L. Gregonis, au.) The Hardy Site at Fort Lowell Park, Tucson, Arizona. Tucson: Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series, 175.
* Reinhard KJ (1997) Projectile points. In (L. Gregonis, au.) The Hardy Site at Fort Lowell Park, Tucson, Arizona. Tucson: Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series, 175.
*§ Reinhard KJ (1997) Body of Evidence: The Wariwilka Mummy, South American Explorer 50:102-108.
*§ Reinhard KJ, Warnock P, (1996) Archaeoparasitology and the Analysis of the Latrine Pit Soils from the City of David. In (M. Rosovsky, ed.) Illness and Healing in Ancient Times. Haifa: University of Haifa.
*§ Reinhard KJ (1996) Parasite ecology of two Anasazi villages. In (E.J. Reitz, L.A. Newson, and S.J. Scudder eds.) Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology. New York: Plenum Press.
*§ Reinhard KJ, Tieszen L, Sandness KL, Beiningen LM, Miller E, Ghazi AM, Miewald CE, Barnum, SV (1994) Trade, contact, and female health in northeast Nebraska. In (C.S. Larsen and G.R. Milner eds.) The Wake of Contact: Biological Responses to Conquest. New York: Wiley- Liss, Inc. pp. 63-74.
§ Mann RW, Owlsey DW, Reinhard KJ (1994) Otitis media, mastoiditis, and infracranial lesions in two Plains Indian children. In (D.W. Owsley and R.L. Jantz eds.) Skeletal Biology in the Great Plains: Migration, Warfare, Health, and Subsistence. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 131-146.
Dominguez S, Reinhard KJ, Sandness KL, Edwards CA, Danielson D (1992) The Dan Canyon Burial, 42A21339, a P III Burial in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Lincoln: Midwest Archeological Center Occasional Studies Series 26.
*§ Reinhard KJ (1992) Patterns of diet, parasitism, and anemia in prehistoric west North America. In (P. Stuart-Macadam and S. Kent, Eds.) Diet, Demography, and Disease: Changing Perspectives on Anemia. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, pp. 219-258.